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Other Research Information – Page 2

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Bee Health – Other Research Information – Page 2 – A selection of PDF Documents with information relating to various areas of Bee Health.

Dead or Alive: Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor Reduce the Life Span of Winter Honeybees

Elevated winter losses of managed honeybee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among the suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, and associated viruses. Here we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expectancy of winter bees, thereby constituting a proximate mechanism for colony losses. A monitoring of colonies was performed over 6 months in Switzerland from summer 2007 to winter 2007/2008. Individual dead workers were collected daily and quantitatively analyzed for deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), N. ceranae, and expression levels of the vitellogenin gene as a biomarker for honeybee longevity.

Read more here: zam981


on veterinary medicinal products

Work on a European legal framework for veterinary medicinal products started in 1965 with the adoption of Directive 65/65/EEC, 1 which required that marketing authorisations be issued before such products could be placed on the market. Since then, numerous other directives and regulations have been adopted to extend and refine the rules, and a harmonised framework has gradually been established. In 2001, all the rules on production, marketing, distribution and use were consolidated in a veterinary medicines code (Directive 2001/82/EC); 2 this was followed by Regulation (EC) No 726/2004.3

Read more here: VMP New 2014 Regs

ASIAN HORNET (Vespa Velutina)

Information Sheet

This south-east Asian species of wasp was first recorded in France in 2005. The Asian Hornet (Vespa velutina) is thought to have arrived in a container of pottery from China before 2004 through the port of Bordeaux. Since 2005 it has spread rapidly throughout the neighbouring départements. There are NO UK records as of May 2010.

Read more here: Vespa Velutina Info Sheet

Odour-mediated transfer to brood cells of its honeybee host, Apis mellifera, and olfactory cell responses of Varroa destructor to volatiles

In a laboratory behavioural assay Varroa left nurse bees to enter brood cells with both drone and worker Apis mellifera larvae on combs, but not to empty cells on combs. Varroa colonised the brood through a 3-mm mesh plastic screen that prevented access by infested bees to the larvae. More infesting Varroa mites left the bees for drone brood than for worker brood cells. Varroa also transferred from nurse bees to combs without larvae but with food jelly. Electrophysiological recordings of action potentials from receptors in the olfactory sensilla on the first leg tarsal pit organ of Varroa show that the mite can sense bee-associated volatiles.

Read more here: Varroa Kaerimonesh

Salivary secretions from the honeybee mite, Varroa Destructor:
effects on insect haemocytes and preliminary biochemical characterization

The ectoparasitic honey bee mite Varroa destructor feeds on the haemolymph of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, through a single puncture wound that does not heal but remains open for several days. It was hypothesized that factors in the varroa saliva are responsible for this aberrant wound healing.
An in vitro procedure was developed for collecting salivary gland secretions from V. destructor. Mites were incubated on balls of cotton wool soaked in a tissue culture medium (TC-100), and then induced to spit by topical application of an ethanolic pilocarpine solution.
Elution of secretions from balls of cotton wool, followed by electrophoretic analysis by SDS-PAGE and electroblotting indicated the presence of at least 15 distinct protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 130 kDa to <17 kDa. Serial titration of V. destructor salivary secretions in TC-100 followed by an 18-h incubation with haemocytes from the caterpillar, Lacanobia oleracea, indicated that the secretions damage the haemocytes and suppresses their ability to extend pseudopods and form aggregates.
We suggest that these secretions facilitate the ability of V. destructor to feed repeatedly off their bee hosts by suppressing haemocyte-mediated wound healing and plugging responses in the host.

Read more here: varroa_PDF

Effects of Time, Temperature, and Honey on Nosema apis (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), a Parasite of the Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Newly emerged adult bees were fed with Nosema apis spores subjected to various treatments, and their longevity, proportions of bees infected, and spores per bee recorded. Spores lost viability after 1, 3, or 6 months in active manuka or multifloral honey, after 3 days in multifloral honey, and after 21 days in water or sugar syrup at 33°C. Air-dried spores lost viability after 3 or 5 days at 40°, 45°, or 49°C. Increasing numbers of bees became infected with increasing doses of spores, regardless of their subsequent food (active manuka honey, thyme honey, or sugar syrup). Final spore loads were similar among bees receiving the same food, regardless of dose. Bees fed with either honey had lighter infections than those fed with syrup, but this may have been due to reductions in their longevity. Bees fed with manuka honey were significantly shorter lived, whether infected or not.

Read more here: Malone-Nosema-2001

Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria Inhibiting Paenibacillus Larvae in Honey Bee Larvae

– We evaluated the antagonistic effects of newly identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, originating from the honey stomach, on the honey bee pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We used inhibition assays on agar plates and honey bee larval bioassays to investigate the effects of honey bee LAB on P. larvae growth in vitro and on AFB infection in vivo. The individual LAB phylotypes showed different inhibition properties against P. larvae growth on agar plates, whereas a combination of all eleven LAB phylotypes resulted in a total inhibition (no visible growth) of P. larvae. Adding the LAB mixture to the larval food significantly reduced the number of AFB infected larvae in exposure bioassays. The results demonstrate that honey bee specific LAB possess beneficial properties for honey bee health. Possible benefits to honey bee health by enhancing growth of LAB or by applying LAB to honey bee colonies should be further investigated.

Read more here: m09040

The occurrence of Melissococcus plutonius in Healthy Colonies of Apis mellifera and the Efficacy of European Foulbrood Control Measures

European foulbrood (EFB) persists in England and Wales despite current treatment methods, all of which include feeding honey bee colonies with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). A large-scale field experiment was conducted to monitor a husbandry-based method, using comb replacement (known as Shook swarm), as a drug free EFB control option. The understanding of EFB epidemiology is limited, with little information on the presence of Melissococcus plutonius in disease free colonies. Additional samples were collected from diseased and disease free apiaries to identify symptomless infection. EFB reoccurrence was not significantly different between OTC and husbandry methods and real-time PCR data demonstrated that fewer Shook swarm treated colonies contained M. plutonius carryover to the Spring following treatment. Asymptomatic colonies from diseased apiaries showed an increased risk of testing positive for M. plutonius compared to asymptomatic colonies from disease free apiaries. The probability of a sample being symptomatic increased when a greater quantity of M. plutonius was detected in adult bees and larvae. The possibility of treating EFB as an apiary disease rather than a colony disease and the implications of a control strategy without antibiotics are discussed.

Read more here: M.plutonius in Bees

A DNA Method for Screening Hive Debris for the Presence of Small Hive Beetle (Aethinatumida)

– The small hive beetle (SHB) is a parasite and scavenger of honey bee colonies. It has recently become an invasive species creating the need for an efficient and reliable detection method. We present a method to screen hive debris for the presence of SHB using real-time PCR in conjunction with an automated DNA extraction protocol. The method was able to detect DNA from SHB eggs, larvae and adult specimens collected from Africa, Australia and North America. The method was used to successfully detect SHB DNA extracted from spiked and naturally infested debris. An Apis mellifera 18S rRNA real-time PCR assay was used as an internal positive control (IPC). The IPC showed that the method was reliable for detection as extraction efficiency was consistent between hive debris samples. If the SHB were to establish at new locations, the availability of such a method would be a valuable support tool to enable species identification and rapid screening of hive debris for delimiting surveys.

Read more here: lwardshbpaper

Properties of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Apis mellifera L. bee-gut

Eight strains belonging to Lactobacillus spp. and five to Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the gut of worker Apis mellifera L. bees. Studies based on 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that AJ5, IG9, A15 and CRL1647 strains had a 99% identity with Lactobacillus johnsonii, while SM21 showed a 99% similarity with Enterococcus faecium. L. johnsonii CRL1647, AJ5 and IG9 were high lactic acid producers (values were between 177 and 275 mM), and in vitro they inhibited different human food-borne pathogens and Paenibacillus larvae, the American foulbrood agent. This bacterium was the most sensitive to the lactic acid effect being inhibited by 44 mM of this metabolite. L. johnsonii CRL1647, AJ5 and IG9 also presented im portant surface properties. These cells showed between 77% and 93% of auto-agg regation. The preliminary study of the chemical nature of the aggregating factors revealed that the molecules involved in the surface of each L. johnsonii strain were quite complex; and something of a peptidic nature was mainly involved. E. faecium SM21 produced bacteriocin-like compounds with anti-Listeria effects.

Read more here: lactobaccilus apis