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A selection of PDF Documents with information relating to various areas of Bee Health

First detection of Kashmir bee virus in the UK using real-time PCR

Abstract
Kashmir bee virus (KBV) often persists in bees as a covert infection with no apparent symptoms. The virus can switch to become an overt lethal infection, especially in the presence of Varroa mites. Although the virus is distributed worldwide, it was thought to be absent from the UK. A real-time PCR assay was developed for specific detection of KBV. No cross-reaction was observed with other bee viruses. KBV was successfully amplified from different life stages of honey bees and from a wasp and bumble bee. Using the real-time PCR assay, a survey of hives was conducted in England and Wales to investigate the presence and geographical distribution of the virus. KBV was detected within three colonies at two locations. The virus titre in the positive samples was quantified and found to contain similar levels to other bees with covert KBV infection. We conclude that KBV is present in the UK and cannot now be considered an exotic disease. The discovery of KBV in the UK has major significance for import policies.

Read more here: KBV-proofs


High Humidity in the Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Brood Nest Limits Reproduction of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud.

Factors influencing reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni have become a central theme of honey bee pathology. In large parts of the world the mite has made it impossible for colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera to survive if no measures of treatment are applied. Originally a parasite of the Eastern honey bee A. cerana, the mite was detected in colonies of A. mellifera only less than 4 decades ago. A. cerana colonies are not damaged by V. jacobsoni because several factors prevent the build-up of a large mite population.

Read more here: High Humidity Varroa


Respirator Filter Selection

The information in this Guide is correct as at November 2008, and should be used in conjunction with general occupational hygiene knowledge. The actual workplace conditions will vary from one worksite to another. This information is intended only as a guide. Selection of the most appropriate RPE will depend on the particular situation and should be made only by a competent person familiar with the working conditions and limitations of RPE. If you have any questions relating to the proper selection and use of 3M respirators, or the use of this Guide, contact your local 3M OH&ES representative or call the 3M Health and Safety Helpline on 0870 60 800 60 in the UK, or 1800 320 500 in Ireland.

Read more here: Filter Selection


Bee Medicaments

The information in this Guide is correct as at November 2008, and should be used in conjunction with general occupational hygiene knowledge. The actual workplace conditions will vary from one worksite to another. This information is intended only as a guide. Selection of the most appropriate RPE will depend on the particular situation and should be made only by a competent person familiar with the working conditions and limitations of RPE. If you have any questions relating to the proper selection and use of 3M respirators, or the use of this Guide, contact your lo cal 3M OH&ES representative or call the 3M Health and Safety Helpline on 0870 60 800 60 in the UK, or 1800 320 500 in Ireland.

Read more here: FAQ_44_Bee_Medicaments_V3_Updated_Nov_11


Asian Hornet Trap

The Asian Hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax, is an aggressive predator of honey bees and of other beneficial species. It has recently extended its native geographical range from Asia to mainland Europe following an accidental introduction to France, is now also present in Spain and has been seen in Belgium. The adult hornets are highly mobile, the rate of spread across France is approximately 100km per year. There is now great concern that this exotic insect will migrate to the UK, either by hitching a ride on imported goods or simply by flying across the channel. So is there anything we can do to help in the battle against this pest? Here are some simple tips…

Read more here: Fact_Sheet_45_Asian_Hornet_trap


Disinfection

Honeybees are subjected to many diseases: bacterial, fungal, viral, etc., and because they are social insects, they are at risk of epidemics. It is essential that beekeepers not only recognize the signs of disease, but also know how to reduce their impact in colonies, apiaries and the locality. This sheet is intended to provide advice on cleaning and disinfection of beekeeping equipment. Your local bee inspector will help and advise in respect of hives and colonies that have been infected with a notifiable disease; i.e. American foulbrood & European foulbrood. For plastics see NBU FAQ 32 ‘Plastic Hives’.

Read more here: Fact_Sheet_31_Disinfection


Simple Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Varroa

This sheet gives an Integrated Pest Management programme to control varroa, based on methods used in Central Europe. It should be reinforced with regular mite level monitoring but will generally be effective.

Read more here: Fact_Sheet_28_Simple_IPM_for_VC_FV


Using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Varroa Control

Integrated Pest Management is described as a combin ation of methods used at different times to control a pest or disease to a level where it does no economical harm. This sheet is to help in the creation of a programme to control varroa mite levels within a honeybee colony.

Read more here: Fact_Sheet_27_IPM_for_VC_FV


EFB Control

European Foul Brood is currently a disease that if beekeepers suspect their colonies are infected then they are legally required to inform the National Bee Unit. An authorised bee inspector will examine the colonies and assist the beekeeper in disease control measures. However beekeepers should develop the skills to detect and control this disease by their own measures.

Read more here: Fact_Sheet_26_EFB_Control_FV


OTC Treatments of colonies with EFB

This sheet deals with actions relating to colonies treated with oxytetracycline (OTC) following diagnosis of Europe an Foul Brood (EFB) by an appointed bee inspector.

Read more here: Fact_Sheet_25_OTC_Treatments_FV